Sources

These are the sources used throughout identiversity. The sources represent the most current, peer-reviewed research complemented by easier to read sources.

Bisexuality

Bouchard, K.N., Timmers, A.D., & Chivers, M.L. (2015). Gender-specificity of genital response and self-reported sexual arousal in women endorsing facets of bisexuality [Abstract]. Journal of Bisexuality, 15(2), 180-203. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15299716.2015.1022924

Clark, T. (2017). Invisability: Talking about bisexuality and aging [Fact sheet]. National Resource Center on LGBT Aging. https://www.lgbtagingcenter.org/resources/pdfs/INVISIBILITY%20bisexuality%20and%20aging%20NRC%20fact%20sheet%20final%206.2.20171.pdf

Copen, C.E., Chandra, A., & Febo-Vazquez, I. (2016, January 7). National health statistics report: Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation among adults aged 18–44 in the United States: Data from the 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth (Report No. 88). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2016/images/01/06/nhsr88.pdf

Danielle. (n.d.). I’m From Mt. Sinai, NY. I'm From Driftwood. http://imfromdriftwood.com/im-from-mt-sinai-ny/

Denizet-Lewis, B. (2014, March 23). The scientific quest to prove bisexuality exists. New York Times Magazine. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/23/magazine/the-scientific-quest-to-prove-bisexuality-exists.html

Diamond, L. (2008). Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: Resulting from a 10-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 44(1), 5-14. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18194000/

Dotinga, R. (2016, January 8). More women report having same-sex relationships. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/more-women-report-same-sex-relationships

Gates, G.J. (2011). How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/how-many-people-lgbt/

Gates, G. J. (2014). LGBT demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-demo-comp-pop-surveys/

Israel, T. (2010, October). Bisexuality and youth: Introduction to the special issue [Abstract]. Journal of Bisexuality, 10(4), 359-365. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15299716.2010.521038

Israel, T. (2015, July 7). Bisexuality and beyond: Tania Israel [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=APPb__tpGHk

Johnston, T.R. (2016). Bisexual aging and cultural competency training: Responses to five common misconceptions [Abstract]. Journal of Bisexuality, 16(1), 99-111. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15299716.2015.1046629

The Kinsey Scale. (2019). Kinsey Institute. https://www.kinseyinstitute.org/research/publications/kinsey-scale.php

The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid. (2014). American Institute of Bisexuality. http://www.americaninstituteofbisexuality.org/

Rainbow Health Ontario. (2015, May 27). Bisexual communities and partners [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5pM3ejn8Ow

Rosenthal, A.M., Sylva, D., Safron, A., & Bailey, J. M. (2012). The male bisexuality debate revisited: Some bisexual men have bisexual arousal patterns. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(1), 135-147. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-011-9881-7

Ward, B. W., Dahlhamer, J. M. Galinsky, A. M., & Joestl, S. S. (2014, July 15). National health statistics report: Sexual Orientation and Health Among U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2013 (Report No. 77). Center for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr077.pdf

Israel, T. (2015, July 7). Bisexuality and beyond: Tania Israel [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=APPb__tpGHk

Copen, C.E., Chandra, A., & Febo-Vazquez, I. (2016, January 7). National health statistics report: Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation among adults aged 18–44 in the United States: Data from the 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth (Report No. 88). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2016/images/01/06/nhsr88.pdf

Denizet-Lewis, B. (2014, March 23). The scientific quest to prove bisexuality exists. New York Times Magazine. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/23/magazine/the-scientific-quest-to-prove-bisexuality-exists.html

Diamond, L. (2008). Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: Resulting from a 10-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 44 (1), 5-14. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18194000/

Dotinga, R. (2016, January 8). More women report having same-sex relationships. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/more-women-report-same-sex-relationships

Gates, G.J. (2011). How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/how-many-people-lgbt/

Jones, Jeffrey M. (2019). LGBT Identification Rises to 5.6% in Latest U.S. Estimate. Gallup. https://news.gallup.com/poll/329708/lgbt-identification-rises-latest-estimate.aspx

The Kinsey Scale. (2019). Kinsey Institute. https://www.kinseyinstitute.org/research/publications/kinsey-scale.php

The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid. (2014). American Institute of Bisexuality. http://www.americaninstituteofbisexuality.org/

Steinmetz, Katy. (2020, January 7). What Does 'Pansexual' Mean? Behind the Rise of the Word. TIME. https://time.com/5760209/what-pansexual-means/

ADP. Bisexuality vs. Pansexuality: What's the Difference? [Video]. YouTube.

Schitt's Creek. The Wine Not the Label [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gdcmhvLaNUs

Rainbow Health Ontario. (2015, May 27). Bisexual communities and partners [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5pM3ejn8Ow

Danielle. (n.d.). I’m From Mt. Sinai, NY. I'm From Driftwood. http://imfromdriftwood.com/im-from-mt-sinai-ny/


Denizet-Lewis, B. (2014, March 23). The scientific quest to prove bisexuality exists. New York Times Magazine. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/23/magazine/the-scientific-quest-to-prove-bisexuality-exists.html

Diamond, L. (2008). Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: Resulting from a 10-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 44 (1), 5-14. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18194000/


Bouchard, K.N., Timmers, A.D., & Chivers, M.L. (2015). Gender-specificity of genital response and self-reported sexual arousal in women endorsing facets of bisexuality [Abstract]. Journal of Bisexuality, 15(2), 180-203. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15299716.2015.1022924

Denizet-Lewis, B. (2014, March 23). The scientific quest to prove bisexuality exists. New York Times Magazine. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/23/magazine/the-scientific-quest-to-prove-bisexuality-exists.html

Rosenthal, A.M., Sylva, D., Safron, A., & Bailey, J. M. (2012). The male bisexuality debate revisited: Some bisexual men have bisexual arousal patterns. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(1), 135-147. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-011-9881-7

Body Parts

Ainsworth, C. (2015). Sex redefined: The idea of two sexes is simplistic. Biologists now think there is a wider spectrum than that. Nature, 518, 288-291. https://www.nature.com/news/polopoly_fs/1.16943!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/518288a.pdf

APA Task Force on Gender Identity, Gender Variance, and Intersex Conditions (2006). Answers to your questions about individuals with intersex conditions [Pamphlet]. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/topics/lgbt/intersex.pdf

Block, M. (2016, August 16). The sensitive question of intersex athletes. NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/thetorch/2016/08/16/490236620/south-african-star-raises-sensitive-questions-about-intersex-athletes

Coleman, D. (2018, April 30). Sex, sport, and why track and field's new rules on intersex athletes are essential. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/30/sports/track-gender-rules.html

Dreger, A. (2018, April 27). Track's absurd new rules for women. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/27/opinion/caster-semenya-intersex-athletes.html

DSD research. (n.d.). Accord Alliance. http://www.accordalliance.org/resources/dsd-research/

Feder, E. & Karkazis, K. (2008). What’s in a name? The controversy over “Disorders of Sex Development”. The Hastings Center Report, 38(5), 33-36. http://med.stanford.edu/content/dam/sm/bioethics/documents/people/resumes/karkazispubs/Whatsinaname.pdf

Fogle, A. (2016, October 21). Falling in between: Inside the lives of intersex women. Good Housekeeping. http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/health/a40787/intersex-stories/

Gender Issues in Agriculture AGEX3003. (n.d.) Growing up intersex part 1 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I9a1rXOpIuc

Ghcorayshi, A. (2017, July 26). A landmark lawsuit about an intersex baby’s genital surgery just settled for $440,000. BuzzFeedNews. https://www.buzzfeed.com/azeenghorayshi/intersex-surgery-lawsuit-settles?utm_term=.if24OoWmp#.ot31g2...

Greenfield, C. (2014, July 8). Should we ‘fix’ intersex children? Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/07/should-we-fix-intersex-children/373536/

Hartney, E. (2018, February 7). What does it mean to be intersex? Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-intersex-21881

Padawer, R. (2016, June 28). The humiliating practice of sex-testing female athletes. New York Times Magazine. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/03/magazine/the-humiliating-practice-of-sex-testing-female-athletes....

Reardon, Sara. (2016). The spectrum of sex development: Eric Vilain and the intersex controversy. Nature, 533(7602), 160-163. https://www.nature.com/news/the-spectrum-of-sex-development-eric-vilain-and-the-intersex-controversy-1.19873

Ritchie, R., Reynard, J., & Lewis, T. (2008). Intersex and the Olympic Games. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 101(8), 395-399. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2500237/

Sleath, E. (2014, December 2). I am intersex: Shon Klose’s story. ABC. http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2014/12/01/4140196.htm

Topol, S. (2017, August). Sons and daughters: The village where girls turn into boys. Harper’s Weekly. https://harpers.org/archive/2017/08/sons-and-daug

Viewpoints on DSD care. (n.d.). Accord Alliance. http://www.accordalliance.org/resources/viewpoints-on-dsd-care/

World Athletics. (2018, April 26). IAAF introduces new eligibility regulations for female classification [Press release]. https://www.iaaf.org/news/press-release/eligibility-regulations-for-female-classifica

Ainsworth, C. (2015). Sex redefined: The idea of two sexes is simplistic. Biologists now think there is a wider spectrum than that. Nature, 518, 288-291. https://www.nature.com/news/polopoly_fs/1.16943!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/518288a.pdf

Gender Issues in Agriculture AGEX3003. (n.d.) Growing up intersex part 1 [Video]. YouTube. https:/www.youtube.com/watch?v=I9a1rXOpIuc&feature=youtu.be&t=659

Hartney, E. (2018, February 7). What does it mean to be intersex? Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-intersex-21881

Ainsworth, C. (2015). Sex redefined: The idea of two sexes is simplistic. Biologists now think there is a wider spectrum than that. Nature, 518,288-291. https://www.nature.com/news/polopoly_fs/1.16943!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/518288a.pdf

APA Task Force on Gender Identity, Gender Variance, and Intersex Conditions (2006). Answers to your questions about individuals with intersex conditions [Pamphlet]. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/topics/lgbt/intersex.pdf

Ghcorayshi, A. (2017, July 26). A landmark lawsuit about an intersex baby’s genital surgery just settled for $440,000. BuzzFeedNews. https://www.buzzfeed.com/azeenghorayshi/intersex-surgery-lawsuit-settles?utm_term=.if24OoWmp#.ot31g2...

Greenfield, C. (2014, July 8). Should we ‘fix’ intersex children? Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/07/should-we-fix-intersex-children/373536/

Reardon, Sara. (2016). The spectrum of sex development: Eric Vilain and the intersex controversy. Nature, 533(7602), 160-163. https://www.nature.com/news/the-spectrum-of-sex-development-eric-vilain-and-the-intersex-controversy-1.19873

Viewpoints on DSD care. (n.d.). Accord Alliance. http://www.accordalliance.org/resources/viewpoints-on-dsd-care/

Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago. (2017). Term "Disorders of Sex Development May Have Negative Impact." Newswise. https://www.newswise.com/articles/term-disorders-of-sex-development-may-have-negative-impact

Feder, E. & Karkazis, K. (2008). What’s in a name? The controversy over “Disorders of Sex Development”. The Hastings Center Report, 38(5), 33-36. http://med.stanford.edu/content/dam/sm/bioethics/documents/people/resumes/karkazispubs/Whatsinaname.pdf

Johnson, Emilie K., et al. (2017). Attitudes towards "disorders of sex development" nomenclature among affected individuals. Journal of Pediatric Urology. V. 13, no. 608.E1-608.E8.

Reis, Elizabeth. (2007). Divergence or Disorder?: the politics of naming intersex. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. V. 50, no. 4., pp. 535-543.


Coleman, D. (2018, April 30). Sex, sport, and why track and field's new rules on intersex athletes are essential. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/30/sports/track-gender-rules.html

Dreger, A. (2018, April 27). Track's absurd new rules for women. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/27/opinion/caster-semenya-intersex-athletes.html

Kolata, Gina. (2019, May 8). Track and Field Tries to Understand New Rules for Intersex Athletes. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/08/sports/semenya-xy-chromosomes.html

Ritchie, R., Reynard, J., & Lewis, T. (2008). Intersex and the Olympic Games. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 101(8), 395-399. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2500237/

World Athletics. (2018, April 26). IAAF introduces new eligibility regulations for female classification [Press release]. https://www.iaaf.org/news/press-release/eligibility-regulations-for-female-classifica

Padawer, R. (2016, June 28). The humiliating practice of sex-testing female athletes. New York Times Magazine. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/03/magazine/the-humiliating-practice-of-sex-testing-female-athletes....

Fogle, A. (2016, October 21). Falling in between: Inside the lives of intersex women. Good Housekeeping. http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/health/a40787/intersex-stories/

Topol, S. (2017, August). Sons and daughters: The village where girls turn into boys. Harper’s Weekly. https://harpers.org/archive/2017/08/sons-and-daug

Sleath, E. (2014, December 2). I am intersex: Shon Klose’s story. ABC. http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2014/12/01/4140196.htm

New York Historical Society. (2020, November 3). Women & The American Story: Thomas(ine) Hall, Gender Non-Conforming in Colonial Virginia [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L3Fyrf6FqrQ

Pinto, Emily. (2022, January 3). This Intersex Woman Had to Flee the Country--Now She Wants the World to Know Her Story. Katie Couric Media. https://katiecouric.com/culture/tatenda-ngwaru-what-it-means-to-be-intersex/

Exploring Bias, Stereotypes and Microaggressions

Carpentier, M. (2009, April 10). Pssst: The girl’s guide to lesbian cliches & stereotypes. Jezebel. Retrieved from https://jezebel.com/5205953/pssst-the-girls-guide-to-lesbian-cliches--stereotypes

Cut (2017, July 17). People guess the sexual orientation of strangers [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2g0IhAuSAw

Dusenbery, M. (2013, May 31). What about the guys who do fit the gay stereotype’? The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/sexes/archive/2013/05/what-about-the-guys-who-do-fit-the-gay-stereotype/276407/

Fahy, C. (2015, May 6). Fearless project challenges stereotypes about LGBT athletes. Daily Bruin. Retrieved from http://dailybruin.com/2015/05/06/fearless-project-challenges-stereotypes-about-lgbt-athletes/

Geiger, W., Harwood, J., & Hummert, M.L. (2006). College students' multiple stereotypes of lesbians: A cognitive perspective. Journal of Homosexuality, 51(3), 165-182. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6663841_College_Students%27_Multiple_Stereotypes_of_Lesbians

Griner, B. (2013, May 5). Griner says she is part of mission to help all live in truth. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/06/sports/basketball/brittney-griner-proudly-part-of-a-mission-to-help-others-live-in-truth.html?_r=1&

History Now (2016, June 13). The Jozi Cats rugby team wants to change perceptions of athletes [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XgZwKj8kS8k&t=17s

James, S. (2009, April 14). When words can kill: ‘That’s so gay’. ABC News. Retrieved from https://abcnews.go.com/Health/MindMoodNews/story?id=7328091

J Kort (2018, March 5). “That’s so gay” Is just so wrong [web log comment]. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/understanding-the-erotic-code/201803/thats-so-gay-is-just-so-wrong

NBC News (2017, June 8). LGBTQ firefighter is putting put fires and stereotypes [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Palw8vbpKc

Nordell, J. (2017, May 7). Is this how discrimination ends? The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/05/unconscious-bias-training/525405/

Payne, K., Niemi, L., & Doris, J.M. (2018, March 27). How to think about “implicit bias”. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-to-think-about-implicit-bias/

Project Implicit [Website]. Harvard University. Retrieved from https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/selectatest.html

Runyon, L. (2014, August 22). All things considered: In changing America, gay masculinity has ‘many different shades’ [Audio podcast]. Podcast retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2014/08/22/339831032/in-changing-america-gay-masculinity-has-many-different-shades

Schulman, M. (2015, July 10). Is there a “gay voice”? The New Yorker. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/is-there-a-gay-voice

Staats, C. (2016). Understanding implicit bias: What educators should know. American Educator, 39(4), 29-33. Retrieved from http://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/ae_winter2015staats.pdf

DW Sue (2010, November 17). Microaggressions: More than just race [web log comment]. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/microaggressions-in-everyday-life/201011/microaggressions-more-just-race

Teen Vogue (2015, November 23). Gus Kenworthy shares the 8 things you should never say to your gay friends [Video file]. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZgCzqlri_a0

University of Michigan. (2012, August 28). Sticks and stones: “That’s so gay” negatively affects gay students. Michigan News. Retrieved from https://news.umich.edu/sticks-and-stones-that-s-so-gay-negatively-affects-gay-students/

Cut (2017, July 17). People guess the sexual orientation of strangers [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2g0IhAuSAw


truly (2022, September 22). He's 'Feminine' & I'm 'Masculine' - And We're In Love [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3HLnSD0drEE

NBC News (2017, June 8). LGBTQ firefighter is putting put fires and stereotypes [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Palw8vbpKc

Payne, K., Niemi, L., & Doris, J.M. (2018, March 27). How to think about “implicit bias”. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-to-think-about-implicit-bias/

Project Implicit [Website]. Harvard University. Retrieved from https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/selectatest.html

Gay Men Discriminate against Feminine Gay Men, New Study Finds (2023, January 31). The University of Sydney. https://www.sydney.edu.au/news-opinion/news/2023/01/31/gay-men-discriminate-against-feminine-gay-men...

Who sounds gay? (2015, July 1). The New York Times [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lkm0rmigGOw

Can you sound gay? (2018, November 30). MTV Impact [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lEZ4Pa1x3vQ

Staples, Louis (2019). “Why Do Gay Men Walk so Fast?” GQ. https://www.gq.com/story/move-im-gay


de la Cretaz, Frankie (2022). Behind the visible queerness in women's sports--and why it matters. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/2022/06/10/lesbian-culture-womens-sports/

Morris, Bonnie (2016). Women's sports history: A heritage of mixed messages. National Women's History Museum. https://www.womenshistory.org/articles/womens-sports-history

Allen, Rebekah (2017, April 26). “10 Myths about Lesbians You Need to Stop Believing Now.” Teen Vogue. https://www.teenvogue.com/story/lesbian-myths-debunked

Bashforth, Emily (2022, July 1). “Debunking Lesbian Stereotypes and Myths.” Patient.Info. https://patient.info/news-and-features/debunking-lesbian-stereotypes-and-myths

Stephenson, Miranda, and Miranda Stephenson (2020, June 20). “Why Is ‘lesbian’ Still a Dirty Word?” Varsity Online https://www.varsity.co.uk/lifestyle/19492

Woo, Andrea (2021, June 15). How Microaggressions Affect the LGBTQ+ Community. New York Presbyterian/Health Matters. https://healthmatters.nyp.org/how-microaggressions-affect-the-lgbtq-community/

Nadal, Kevin L. (2014, February 7). Stop Saying ‘That’s so Gay!’: 6 Types of Microaggressions That Harm LGBTQ People. Psychology Benefits Society. https://psychologybenefits.org/2014/02/07/anti-lgbt-microaggressions/

Kort, Joe (2018, March 5). ‘That’s so Gay’ Is Just so Wrong. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/understanding-the-erotic-code/201803/thats-so-gay-is-just-so...

Sue, Derald Wing (2010, November 17). Microaggressions: More Than Just Race. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/microaggressions-in-everyday-life/201011/microaggressions-mo...

Wadley, Jared (2012: August 28). Sticks and Stones: ‘That’s so Gay’ Negatively Affects Gay Students. University of Michigan News. https://news.umich.edu/sticks-and-stones-that-s-so-gay-negatively-affects-gay-students/

Rummler, Orion and Jasmine Mithani (2022, September 15). 'I felt judged': LGBTQ+ Americans report significantly more medical discrimination. The 19th. https://19thnews.org/2022/09/poll-healthcare-lgbtq-medical-discrimination/

Sabin, J.A., Riskind, R.G., & Nosek, B.A. (2015, September). Health Care Providers’ Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Lesbian Women and Gay Men. American Journal of Public Health. 105(9): 1831–1841. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539817/

What We Know Project, Cornell University, “What Does the Scholarly Research Say about the Effects of Discrimination on the Health of LGBT People” (online literature review), 2019. https://whatweknow.inequality.cornell.edu/topics/lgbt-equality/what-does-scholarly-research-say-abou...

The Trevor Project (2021, October 14). Bullying and Suicide Risk among LGBTQ Youth. https://www.thetrevorproject.org/research-briefs/bullying-and-suicide-risk-among-lgbtq-youth/

Knight, Rebecca (2020, July 31). You’ve Been Called out for a Microaggression. What Do You Do? Harvard Business Review, 31 July 2020. https://hbr.org/2020/07/youve-been-called-out-for-a-microaggression-what-do-you-do

Gender

Bakker, J. (2018) Brain structure and function in gender dysphoria. Endocrine Abstracts, 56(S 30.3). https://www.endocrine-abstracts.org/ea/0056/ea0056s30.3.htm

Biswas, S. (2019, May 31). How Britain tried to 'erase' India's third gender. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-48442934

Bodkin, H. (2018, May 22). Transgender brain scans promised as study shows structural differences in people with gender dysphoria. Telegraph. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/05/22/transgender-brain-scans-promised-study-shows-structural-differences/?WT.mc_id=tmg_share_fb

CBS News. (2017, March 23). Non-binary: The gender beyond he or she [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0ahBHJbyCg

Cocking, L. (2018, January 10). A brief history of Mexico’s third gender. The Omnivore. https://medium.com/the-omnivore/a-brief-history-of-mexicos-third-gender-7d80451419e6

Geiger, A.W., & Graf, N. (2019, September 5). About one-in-five U.S. adults know someone who goes by a gender-neutral pronoun. Pew Research Center Fact Tank. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/09/05/gender-neutral-pronouns/

Graf, N. (2019, December 18). About four-in-ten U.S. adults say forms should offer more than two gender options. Pew Research Center Fact Tank. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/12/18/gender-options-on-forms-or-online-profiles/

Havas Global Comms. (2017, September 18). The future is FeMale. Havas Group. https://download.havas.com/prosumer-reports/future-is-female/

Herman, J., Flores, A., Brown, T., Wilson, B., & Conron, K. (2017, January). Age of individuals who identify as transgender in the United States. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/age-trans-individuals-us/

India court recognises transgender people as third gender. (2014, April 15) BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-27031180

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Joel, D., Tarrasch, R., Berman, Z., Mukamel, M., & Ziv, E. (2013). Queering gender: Studying gender identity in ‘normative’ individuals. Psychology & Sexuality, 5(4), 291–321. http://people.socsci.tau.ac.il/mu/daphnajoel/files/2014/11/Joel_gender_identity_2013.pdf

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Nunberg, G. (2019, August). Opinion: Even a grammar geezer like me can get used to gender neutral pronouns. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2019/08/06/744121321/even-a-grammar-geezer-like-me-can-get-used-to-gender-neutral-pronouns

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Freeman, H. (2017, September 16). Let’s drop the gender stereotypes-we are all non-binary. Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/sep/16/drop-gender-stereotypes-we-are-all-non-binary

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Choi, et al. (May 2021). AAPI LGBT Adults in the US. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-aapi-adults-in-the-us/

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Hammack, P. (2019, April 8). The future is non-binary, and teens are leading the way. Pacific Standard. https://psmag.com/ideas/gen-z-the-future-is-non-binary

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Cheves, Alexander. (2019, June 4). 9 LGBTQ+ people explain how they love, hate, and understand the word 'Queer'. them. https://www.them.us/story/what-does-queer-mean

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Duigan, Brian. (2016, November 16). Loving v. Virginia. Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/event/Loving-v-Virginia

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Wood, Stephen. (2021, August 27). Why the first gay olympics was a watershed moment in sports. History. https://www.history.com/news/first-gay-games-olympics

Williams Institute. (2023). 2023 Data in Review. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Williams-Institute-Data-in-Review-2023.pdf

Ellis, Nicquel Terry. (2023, September 1). One of Louisiana's only pediatric cardiologists has left the state over anti-LGBTQ+ legislation. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2023/09/01/us/jake-kleinmahon-doctor-leaves-louisiana-reaj/index.html#:~:text=Wh...,he%20felt%20drawn%20to%20Louisiana.

What We Know Project, Cornell University, “What Does the Scholarly Research Say about the Effects of Discrimination on the Health of LGBT People” (online literature review), 2019. https://whatweknow.inequality.cornell.edu/topics/lgbt-equality/what-does-scholarly-research-say-abou...

Noguchi, Yuki. (2019, October 16). He, She, They: Workplaces Adult as Gender Identity Norms Change. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2019/10/16/770298129/he-she-they-workplaces-adjust-as-gender-identity-norms-chan...

Baboolal, David, et. al. (2021, November 10). Being Transgender at Work. McKinsey Quarterly. https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/diversity-and-inclusion/being-transgender-at-work

LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company. (2021, September). Women in the Workplace: Lesbian and Bisexual Women. https://leanin.org/article/women-in-the-workplace-lesbian-and-bisexual-women#!

National Institutes of Health. (2016, June 2). Telling Our Stories: Nicole Perez on Seizing Opportunity. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v+HV2FfAThhNM

Levitt, Michael. (2022, January 29). Amy Schneider's run on 'Jeopardy!' may be over, but her fans are thankful as ever. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2022/01/29/1076423607/amy-schneider-jeopardy-trans-visibility

Duran, Eric. (2018, July 23). Latino millennials least likely to identify as heterosexual, survey finds. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/latino-millennials-least-likely-identify-heterosexual-survey...

Gandhi, Lakshmi. (2020, October 10). In many Asian languages, 'LGBTQ' doesn't translate. Here's how some fill the gaps. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/many-asian-languages-lgbtq-doesn-t-translate-here-s-how-n...

Carbajal, Paloma Celis. (2020, September 29). From Hispanic to Latine: Hispanic Heritage Month and the Terms That Bind Us. New York Public Library. https://www.nypl.org/blog/2020/09/29/hispanic-heritage-month-terms-bind-us

Noe-Bustamante, Luis, et al. (2020, August 11). About one-in-four U.S. Hispanics have heard of Latinx, but just 3% use it. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2020/08/11/about-one-in-four-u-s-hispanics-have-heard-of-latinx...

Reyes, Raul A. (2017, November 6). To be or not to be Latinx? For some Hispanics, that is the question. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/latino/be-latinx-or-not-be-latinx-some-hispanics-question-n817911?icid=...

Jones, Jeffrey M. (2023, February 22). U.S. LGBT Identification Steady at 7.2%. Gallup. https://news.gallup.com/poll/470708/lgbt-identification-steady.aspx

Nature vs. Nurture

Ashley, K. B. (2013). The science on sexual orientation: A review of the recent literature. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health, 17(2), 175-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19359705.2013.767179

Bailey, J.M., Vasey, P.L., Diamond, L.M., Breedlove, S.M., Vilan, E. & Epprecht, M. (2016). Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17(2), 45-101. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1529100616637616

Blanchard, R. (2001). Fraternal birth order and the maternal immune hypothesis of male homosexuality. Hormones and Behavior, 40(2), 105-114. https://doi.org/10.1006/hbeh.2001.1681

Bogaert, A.F. (2006). Biological versus nonbiological older brothers and men's sexual orientation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(28), 10771-10774. doi:10.1073/pnas.0511152103

Burton, N. (2015, September 18). When homosexuality stopped being a mental disorder. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201509/when-homosexuality-stopped-being-mental-disorder

Cartwright, M. (2015, August 3). Where’s the scientific research into how sexual orientation develops in women? Slate. http://www.slate.com/blogs/outward/2015/08/03/sexual_orientation_in_women_why_so_little_scientific_r...

Epigenomics fact sheet. (2016, April 1). National Human Genome Research Institute. https://www.genome.gov/27532724/epigenomics-fact-sheet/

Gosh, D. (2009, February 4). National Geographic explains the biology of homosexuality [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=saO_RFWWVVA

Queen Mary, University of London. (2008, June 30). Homosexual behavior largely shaped by genetics and random environmental factors. Science Daily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080628205430.htm

Reardon, S. (2015, October 8). Epigenetic 'tags' linked to homosexuality in men. Nature. http://www.nature.com/news/epigenetic-tags-linked-to-homosexuality-in-men-1.18530

Rice, W.R., Friberg, U., & Gavrilets, S. (2012). Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 87(4), 343-368. http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gavrila/papers/h2.pdf

Sanders, A.R., Martin, E.R., Beecham, G.W., Guo, S., Dawood, K., Rieger, G., Badner, J., Gershon, E.S., Krishnappa, R.S., Kolundzija, A.B., Duan, J., Gejman, P.J., & Bailey, J.M. (2015). Genome-wide scan demonstrates significant linkage for male sexual orientation. Psychological Medicine, 45(7), 1379-1388. doi:10.1007/s12119-014-9233-6

TEDx Talks. (2016, November 15). Homosexuality: It's about survival - not sex- James O’Keefe-TedxTallaght [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Khn_z9FPmU&vl=en

Wolchover, N. (2012, June 11). Why are there gay men? Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/33987-gay-men.html

Wolchover, N. (2012, June 12). Why are there gay women? Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/33992-gay-women.html

Gosh, D. (2009, February 4). National Geographic explains the biology of homosexuality [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=saO_RFWWVVA

TEDx Talks. (2016, November 15). Homosexuality: It's about survival - not sex- James O’Keefe-TedxTallaght [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Khn_z9FPmU&vl=en

Akpan, Nissan. (2019, August 29). There is no 'gay gene.' There is no 'straight gene.' Sexuality is just complex, study confirms. PBS. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/there-is-no-gay-gene-there-is-no-straight-gene-sexuality-is-jus...

Bailey, J.M., Vasey, P.L., Diamond, L.M., Breedlove, S.M., Vilan, E. & Epprecht, M. (2016). Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17(2), 45-101. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1529100616637616

Cartwright, M. (2015, August 3). Where’s the scientific research into how sexual orientation develops in women? Slate. http://www.slate.com/blogs/outward/2015/08/03/sexual_orientation_in_women_why_so_little_scientific_r...

Roselli, C. E. (2018). Neurobiology of Gender Identity and Sexual Identity. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 30(7). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6677266/

Bailey, J.M., Vasey, P.L., Diamond, L.M., Breedlove, S.M., Vilan, E. & Epprecht, M. (2016). Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17(2), 45-101. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1529100616637616

Burton, N. (2015, September 18). When homosexuality stopped being a mental disorder. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201509/when-homosexuality-stopped-being-mental-disorder

Bailey, J.M., Vasey, P.L., Diamond, L.M., Breedlove, S.M., Vilan, E. & Epprecht, M. (2016). Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17(2), 45-101. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1529100616637616

Choi, Charles Q. (n.d.). The 'Gay Gene' is a Total Myth, Massive Study Concludes. LiveScience. https://www.livescience.com/no-single-gene-makes-someone-gay.html

Genetics of Sexual Behavior. https://geneticsexbehavior.info/

Queen Mary, University of London. (2008, June 30). Homosexual behavior largely shaped by genetics and random environmental factors. Science Daily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080628205430.htm

Sanders, A.R., Martin, E.R., Beecham, G.W., Guo, S., Dawood, K., Rieger, G., Badner, J., Gershon, E.S., Krishnappa, R.S., Kolundzija, A.B., Duan, J., Gejman, P.J., & Bailey, J.M. (2015). Genome-wide scan demonstrates significant linkage for male sexual orientation. Psychological Medicine, 45(7), 1379-1388. doi:10.1007/s12119-014-9233-6

Epigenomics fact sheet. (2016, April 1). National Human Genome Research Institute. https://www.genome.gov/27532724/epigenomics-fact-sheet/

Reardon, S. (2015, October 8). Epigenetic 'tags' linked to homosexuality in men. Nature. http://www.nature.com/news/epigenetic-tags-linked-to-homosexuality-in-men-1.18530

Rice, W.R., Friberg, U., & Gavrilets, S. (2012). Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 87(4), 343-368. http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gavrila/papers/h2.pdf

Wolchover, N. (2012, June 11). Why are there gay men? Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/33987-gay-men.html

Wolchover, N. (2012, June 12). Why are there gay women? Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/33992-gay-women.html

Bailey, J.M., Vasey, P.L., Diamond, L.M., Breedlove, S.M., Vilan, E. & Epprecht, M. (2016). Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17(2), 45-101. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1529100616637616

Blanchard, R. (2001). Fraternal birth order and the maternal immune hypothesis of male homosexuality. Hormones and Behavior, 40(2), 105-114. https://doi.org/10.1006/hbeh.2001.1681

Blanchard, R. 2018. Fraternal birth order, family size, and male homosexuality: meta analysis of studies spanning 25 years. Arch Sex. Behav. 47 (1-15). https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-017-1007-4

Blanchard, R., et al. (2020). A method yielding comparable estimates of the fraternal birth order and female fecundity effects in male homosexuality. Proceedings of the Royal Society B., 287 (1923). https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.2907

Bogaert, A.F. (2006). Biological versus nonbiological older brothers and men's sexual orientation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(28), 10771-10774. doi:10.1073/pnas.0511152103

Bailey, J.M., Vasey, P.L., Diamond, L.M., Breedlove, S.M., Vilan, E. & Epprecht, M. (2016). Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17(2), 45-101. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1529100616637616

Ashley, K. B. (2013). The science on sexual orientation: A review of the recent literature. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health, 17(2), 175-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19359705.2013.767179

Cartwright, M. (2015, August 3). Where’s the scientific research into how sexual orientation develops in women? Slate. http://www.slate.com/blogs/outward/2015/08/03/sexual_orientation_in_women_why_so_little_scientific_research.html

Friedman, Jonathan and Nadine Farid Johnson. (2022, September 19). Banned in the USA: The Growing Movement to Censor Books in Schools. PEN America. https://pen.org/report/banned-usa-growing-movement-to-censor-books-in-schools/

Tensley, Brandon. (2022, September 22). 'We're seeing a relaunch of an old story.' CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2022/09/22/us/lgbtq-book-bans-race-deconstructed-newsletter-reaj/index.html

(2021, February 22). What's With All the Gay Penguins? Museum Studies at Tufts University. https://sites.tufts.edu/museumstudents/2021/02/22/whats-with-all-the-gay-penguins/

Older Adults

Abrahms, S. (n.d.). An ‘LGBT-Welcoming’ place to call home. AARP Livable Communities: Housing. https://www.aarp.org/livable-communities/housing/info-2016/age-friendly-LGBT-housing.html

Badgett, M. V. L., Durso, L., & Schneebaum, A. (2013, June). New patterns of poverty in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgb-patterns-of-poverty/

Brenoff, A. (2015, July 12). Why aging can be tougher on gays. HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/5-problems-of-aging-while-gay_us_559fd6d0e4b01c2162a64e91

Browning, P. (2017, August 30). Older gays and lesbians face more health disparities, study says. KUOW. https://kuow.org/stories/older-gays-and-lesbians-face-more-health-disparities-study-says/

Choi, S. K., & Meyer, I.H. (2016, August). LGBT aging: A review of research findings, needs, and policy implications. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-aging/

Dugan, J.T. & Fabbre, V. (2018). To survive on this shore: Photographs and interviews with transgender and gender nonconforming older adults. https://www.tosurviveonthisshore.com/

Emlet, C. A. (2016, Summer). Social, economic, and health disparities among LGBT older adults. Generations, 40(2), 16-22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5373809/

Eskenazi, L., (2015, June 11). How to find care for LGBT seniors. PBS News Hour. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/lgbt-older-adults-emerging-community

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K., Bryan, A., Jen, S., Goldsen, J., Kim, H. J., Muraco, A. (2017, February). The unfolding of LGBT lives: Key events associated with health and well-being in later life. The Gerontological Society of America, 57(1), S15-S29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241757/

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K., Kim, H.J., Barkan, S., Muraco, A., & Hoy-Ellis C. P. (2011). The aging and health report: Disparities and resilience among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults. Institute for Mutigenerational Health. https://www.lgbtagingcenter.org/resources/pdfs/LGBT%20Aging%20and%20Health%20Report_final.pdf

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K., Kim, H. J., Shui, C., & Bryan, A. (2017). Chronic health conditions and key health indicators among lesbian, gay, and bisexual older US adults, 2013-2014. American Journal of Public Health, 107(8), 1332-1338. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5508186/

Gorman, A. (2016, October 18). LGBTQ seniors face discrimination in long-term care. PBS News Hour. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/lgbtq-seniors-face-discrimination-long-term-care

ImFromDriftwood. (2017, December 21). Drafted in 1958: “My Eighteen Months Away Solidified Our Relationship” [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=38RoHv7LRvc

ImFromDriftwood. (2017, December 21). Family opens up at memorial for late partner [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0nuWjKbcsc

ImFromDriftwood. (2017, May 15). Living in LGBT-friendly senior housing: “We live like neighbors. And that’s a good thing” [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=3&v=drO2HsFHqN

Maddux, S. (2011). Gen silent trailer [Video]. The Clowder Group. https://www.theclowdergroup.com/gensilent

Movement Advancement Project. (2017, May 24). Aging as LGBT: Two stories [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lkPJxQorieo

National Senior Citizens Law Center, Lambda Legal, National Center for Lesbian Rights, National Center for Transgender Equality, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, & Services & Advocacy for GLBT Elders (SAGE). (2011, April). LGBT older adults in long-term care facilities: Stories from the field. The National Resource Center on LGBT Aging. https://www.lgbtagingcenter.org/resources/pdfs/NSCLC_LGBT_report.pdf

Naughton, J. (2018, August 20). A visual record of the joys, fears and hopes of older transgender people. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/20/lens/older-transgender-people.html

Wallace, S., Cochran, S., Durazo, E., & Ford, C. (2011, March). The health of aging lesbian, gay and bisexual adults in California. The UCLA Center of Health Policy Research. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3698220/

Wheeler, D. (2016, August 25). LGBT seniors are being pushed back into the closet. Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/08/lgbt-seniors/497324/

Whitfield, C. (2017, July 2). Black, gray and gay: The perils of aging LGBTQ people of color. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/nbcblk/black-gray-gay-perils-aging-lgbtq-people-color-n777791

Movement Advancement Project. (2017, May 24). Aging as LGBT: Two stories [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lkPJxQorieo

Movement Advancement Project. (2017). Understanding Issues Facing LGBT Older Adults. https://www.lgbtmap.org/file/understanding-issues-facing-lgbt-older-adults.pdf

Brenoff, A. (2015, July 12). Why aging can be tougher on gays. HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/5-problems-of-aging-while-gay_us_559fd6d0e4b01c2162a64e91

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K., Kim, H.J., Barkan, S., Muraco, A., & Hoy-Ellis C. P. (2011). The aging and health report: Disparities and resilience among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults. Institute for Mutigenerational Health. https://www.lgbtagingcenter.org/resources/pdfs/LGBT%20Aging%20and%20Health%20Report_final.pdf


Badgett, M. V. L., Durso, L., & Schneebaum, A. (2013, June). New patterns of poverty in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgb-patterns-of-poverty/

Emlet, C. A. (2016, Summer). Social, economic, and health disparities among LGBT older adults. Generations, 40(2), 16-22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5373809/

ImFromDriftwood. (2017, December 21). Drafted in 1958: “My Eighteen Months Away Solidified Our Relationship” [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=38RoHv7LRvc

Choi, S. K., & Meyer, I.H. (2016, August). LGBT aging: A review of research findings, needs, and policy implications. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-aging/

Maddux, S. (2011). Gen silent trailer [Video]. The Clowder Group. https://www.theclowdergroup.com/gensilent

Whitfield, C. (2017, July 2). Black, gray and gay: The perils of aging LGBTQ people of color. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/nbcblk/black-gray-gay-perils-aging-lgbtq-people-color-n777791

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K., Bryan, A., Jen, S., Goldsen, J., Kim, H. J., Muraco, A. (2017, February). The unfolding of LGBT lives: Key events associated with health and well-being in later life. The Gerontological Society of America, 57(1), S15-S29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241757/

Eskenazi, L., (2015, June 11). How to find care for LGBT seniors. PBS News Hour. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/lgbt-older-adults-emerging-community

ImFromDriftwood. (2017, December 21). Family opens up at memorial for late partner [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0nuWjKbcsc

Wheeler, D. (2016, August 25). LGBT seniors are being pushed back into the closet. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/08/lgbt-seniors/497324

National Senior Citizens Law Center, Lambda Legal, National Center for Lesbian Rights, National Center for Transgender Equality, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, & Services & Advocacy for GLBT Elders (SAGE). (2011, April). LGBT older adults in long-term care facilities: Stories from the field. The National Resource Center on LGBT Aging. https://www.lgbtagingcenter.org/resources/pdfs/NSCLC_LGBT_report.pdf

Gorman, A. (2016, October 18). LGBTQ seniors face discrimination in long-term care. PBS News Hour. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/lgbtq-seniors-face-discrimination-long-term-care

Abrahms, S. (n.d.). An ‘LGBT-Welcoming’ place to call home. AARP Livable Communities: Housing. https://www.aarp.org/livable-communities/housing/info-2016/age-friendly-LGBT-housing.html

ImFromDriftwood. (2017, May 15). Living in LGBT-friendly senior housing: “We live like neighbors. And that’s a good thing” [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=3&v=drO2HsFHqN

Dugan, J.T. & Fabbre, V. (2018). To survive on this shore: Photographs and interviews with transgender and gender nonconforming older adults. https://www.tosurviveonthisshore.com/

Naughton, J. (2018, August 20). A visual record of the joys, fears and hopes of older transgender people. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/20/lens/older-transgender-people.html

Sexual Orientation

American Psychological Association. (2012). Guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. American Psychologist, 67(1), 10–42. http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/features/amp-a0024659.pdf

Beaulieu-Prevost, D. & Fortin, M. (2015). The measurement of sexual orientation: Historical background and current practices. Sexologies 24(1), 29-34. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1158136014000656

Buzzfeed. (2017, July 27). How did you know you were gay? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fwKm0XUQ6e0

Carrillo, H. & Hoffman, A. (2018). Straight with a pinch of bi: The construction of heterosexuality as an elastic category among adult US men. Sexualities, 21(1-2), 90-108. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1363460716678561

Copen, C.E., Chandra, A., & Febo-Vazquez, I. (2016). Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation among adults aged 18–44 in the United States: data from the 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth. CDC: National Health Statistics Report, 88. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs//data/nhsr/nhsr088.pdf

Cornell University. (2017, December). What does the scholarly research say about the well-being of children with gay or lesbian parents? What We Know: The Public Policy Research Portal. https://whatweknow.inequality.cornell.edu/topics/lgbt-equality/what-does-the-scholarly-research-say-...

Cornell University. (2017, December). What does the scholarly research say about whether conversion therapy can alter sexual orientation without causing harm? What We Know: The Public Policy Research Portal. https://whatweknow.inequality.cornell.edu/topics/lgbt-equality/what-does-the-scholarly-research-say-...

Conroy, E. (2013, April 29). The 4th Sexuality - Asexuality [Video]. YouTube. www.youtube.com/watch?v=yrXWqwuOqIQ

Diamond, L.M. (2008). Sexual fluidity: Understanding women’s love and desire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gates, G.J. (2011). How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/how-many-people-lgbt/

Gates, G. J. (2013). LGBT Parenting in the US. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-parenting-us/

Gates, G. J. (2014). LGBT demographics: Comparisons among population-based surveys. Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/lgbt-demo-comp-pop-surveys/

Gates, G.J. (2017). In US, more adults identifying as LGBT. Gallup. http://news.gallup.com/poll/201731/lgbt-identification-rises.aspx

GLAAD. (n.d.). Glossary of terms- lesbian/ gay/ bisexual/queer.
Media Reference Guide. https://www.glaad.org/reference/lgbtq

The Kinsey Scale. (2019). Kinsey Institute. https://www.kinseyinstitute.org/research/publications/kinsey-scale.php

The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid. (2014). American Institute of Bisexuality. http://www.americaninstituteofbisexuality.org/thekleingrid

The Scene. (2017, March 29). I married my sorority sister [Video]. YouTube. www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ASIpIY7RtE

Selterman, D. (2014, January 13). Debunking myths about sexual fluidity. Luvze. http://www.scienceofrelationships.com/home/2014/10/13/debunking-myths-about-sexual-fluidity.html

StoryCorps. (2015, March 29). Deidra Robinson & William Watford III [Audio podcast]. https://storycorps.org/listen/william-watford-iii-and-deidra-robinson-150329/

StoryCorps. (2012, June 22). Denny Meyer [Audio podcast]. https://storycorps.org/listen/denny-meyer/

StoryCorps. (2013, June 28). Samuel Taylor and Connie Casey [Audio podcast]. https://storycorps.org/listen/samuel-taylor-and-connie-casey/

American Psychological Association. (2012). Guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. American Psychologist, 67(1), 10–42. http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/features/amp-a0024659.pdf

Beaulieu-Prevost, D. & Fortin, M. (2015). The measurement of sexual orientation: Historical background and current practices. Sexologies 24(1), 29-34. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1158136014000656

Carrillo, H. & Hoffman, A. (2018). Straight with a pinch of bi: The construction of heterosexuality as an elastic category among adult US men. Sexualities, 21(1-2), 90-108.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1363460716678561

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Snow, K. (2015, April 23). Jacob’s journey: Life as a transgender 5-year old. NBC News. http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/transgender-kids/jacob-s-journey-life-transgender-5-year-old-n34513...

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Raypole, Crystal. (2016, June 29). What does it mean for a Transgender person to transition? GoodTherapy. https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/what-does-it-mean-for-transgender-person-to-transition-0629167

Fitzsimons, T. (2018, September 17). Pediatric group recommends 'affirmative care' for transgender youth. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/pediatricians-group-recommends-affirmative-care-transgender-youth-n910451

Ghorayshi, Azeen. (2022, January 13). Doctors Debate Whether Trans Teens Need Therapy Before Hormones. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/13/health/transgender-teens-hormones.html

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Bakker, J. (2018) Brain structure and function in gender dysphoria. Presented at the 20th European Congress of Endocrinology. Endocrine Abstracts, 56(S 30.3). https://www.endocrine-abstracts.org/ea/0056/ea0056s30.3.htm

Bodkin, H. (2018, May 22). Transgender brain scans promised as study shows structural differences in people with gender dysphoria. Telegraph. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/05/22/transgender-brain-scans-promised-study-shows-structural-differences/?WT.mc_id=tmg_share_fb

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Wu, K.J. (2016, October 25). Between the (gender) lines: The science of transgender identity. Science in the News. http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2016/gender-lines-science-transgender-identity/

Burke, S., Kreukels, B., Cohen-Kettenis, P., Veltman, D., Klink, D., & Bakker, J. (2016). Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria - organizational and activational effects of testosterone. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 41(6), 395–404. https://doi.org/10.1503/jpn.150147

Getahun, D., Nash R., Flanders W.D., Baird, T.C., Becerra-Culqui, T.A., Cromwell, L., Hunkeler, E., Lash, T.L., Millman, A., Quinn, V.P., Robinson, B., Roblin, D., Silverberg, M.J., Safer, J., Slovis, J., Tangpricha, V., & Goodman, M. (2018). Cross-sex hormones and acute cardiovascular events in transgender persons: A cohort study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 169(4), 205–213. https://doi.org/10.7326/M17-2785

Heylens, G., Verroken, C., De Cock, S., T’Sjoen, G., & De Cuypere, G. (2014). Effects of different steps in gender reassignment therapy on psychopathology: A Prospective study of persons with a gender identity disorder. The Journal of Sexual Medicine., 11(1), 119–126. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsm.12363

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Herman, J.L., et al. (2022). How Many Adults and Youth Identify as Transgender in the United States? Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/publications/trans-adults-united-states/

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Eligon, J. (2017, August 6). Transgender African-Americans’ open wound: ‘We’re considered a joke’. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/06/us/black-transgender-lil-duval.html?searchResultPosition=80

Rojas, R. & Swales, V. (2019, September 27). 18 Transgender killings this year raise fears of an epidemic. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/27/us/transgender-women-deaths.html?smid=nytcore-ios-share

Stotzer, R.L. (2017). Data sources hinder our understanding of transgender murder. American Journal of Public Health, 107(9), 1362–1363. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5551619/





Urquhart, Evan. (2023, April 20). My Son is Trans. We Live in Texas. SLATE. https://slate.com/technology/2023/04/gender-affirming-care-texas-teen-trans-boy.html

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